Ecological risk assessment and potential adverse effects posed by antifouling biocides to saltwater environments

Among human activities, the use of the antifouling paints in order to protect the ship’s hull or submerged static structures from the colonization of aquatic organisms (fouling) represents a dangerous source of chemical contamination for coastal aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In recent years, the estimation of potential negative effects of biocides contained in antifouling paints upon the organisms and the aquatic ecosystems became an issue of great interest. To this aim, many ecological risk assessment (ERA) studies were conducted


DOI: 10.12910/EAI2014-44

Luisa Parrella


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Luisa Parrella
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